當前位置:悉尼fcvs鹿岛鹿角 > 對外漢語 > 文化中國 > 民俗 > 正文

Chinese Traditional Kite Craft 中國傳統風箏

作者: 錄入:tmx 來源:對外漢語學習網 2019-03-06 14:00:14 

Kites were invented by the Chinese people over 2000 years ago. about in the 12th century, Chinese kite spread to the West and oriental and Western kite culture was formed after years of development. In this process, the traditional culture integrated with the kite craft, and finally formed the kite culture with unique characteristics.


Uses of kite have been changed several times in history. According to historical record, kite was first used in military. In the mid Tang Dynasty (618-907), in which the society was stable and peaceful, the use of kites was gradually changed from military to entertainment. With the innovation of papermaking, the raw material of kite changed from silk to paper. Kite became popular among civilians with a richer variety of forms and reached the peak point in the Song Dynasty (960-1279). Participated by the literary, the making and the decoration of kites underwent great development. Kite making became a profession due to the large demand.

The Ming (1368-1644) and Qing dynasties,was the peak period of the Chinese kite. The kites underwent great development in size, design, decoration and flying skills. Literators at that time made kite by themselves, and sent to relatives and friends as a gift, regarding it a literary pursuit. In recent years, kite flying has publicized as a sports activity as well as entertainment.

To make a kite, first, the right kind of bamboo strips must be selected for the frame. It should be thick and strong for a kite of large dimensions in order to stand the wind pressure. The regular paper or sometime silk is used to cover the frame. Silk kites, especially, are more durable and generally of higher artistic value. Third, painting the kite may be done in each way. Kites could be generally divided into two categories: the Hard Wing and the Soft Wing. The Hard Wing can endure more air pressure and competitively fly higher, whilst the latter can fly farther, although it can not fly as high. In patterns, besides the traditional ones of animals, birds, worms, fishes, new patterns of human images emerged in modern times.

China has a large area of territory. As a traditional culture and folk art, kite has formed unique style of different regions during its development, among which the most famous ones are the styles of Beijing, Tianjin, Weifang in Shangdong Province, Sichuan and Guangdong Province.


風箏是中國人發明的,距今已有2000余年的歷史。大約在公元12世紀,中國風箏傳到了西方,此后經過不斷發展,逐漸形成各具特色的東西方風箏文化。在風箏的發展過程中,具有悠久歷史的中國傳統文化開始與風箏工藝相融合,將神話故事、花鳥瑞獸、吉祥寓意等表現在風箏上,從而形成了獨具地方特色的風箏文化。

在歷史上,風箏的用途曾有過多次轉換。根據史書記載,風箏的最初功用是用于軍事。到了唐代(公元618~907年)中期,社會進入了繁榮穩定的發展階段,風箏的功用開始從軍事用途轉向娛樂,同時由于紙業的發展,風箏的制作材料也由絲絹轉而開始使用紙張。風箏逐漸走向民間,類型也豐富起來。宋代(公元960~1279年),風箏的流傳更為廣泛。當時由于文人的參加,風箏在扎制和裝飾上都有了很大的發展。同時由于社會上對風箏的需求,制作風箏發展為一種專門的職業。

明清時代(公元1368~1911年)是中國風箏發展的鼎盛時期,明清風箏在大小、樣式、扎制技術、裝飾和放飛技藝上都有了超越前代的巨大進步。當時的文人親手扎繪風箏,除自己放飛外,還贈送親友,并認為這是一種極為風雅的活動。近年來,中國的風箏事業得到了長足的發展,放風箏開始作為體育運動項目和健身娛樂活動普及起來。

中國風箏以細竹扎成骨架,再糊以紙或絹制作而成。傳統的中國風箏工藝包括"扎、糊、繪、放"四種技藝,"扎"即要達到對稱,使風箏左右兩側的受風面積相當;"糊"即要保證整體平整,干凈利落;"繪"即要做到遠眺清楚,近看真實的效果;"放"即要依據風力調整提線角度。風箏的種類主要分為"硬翅"和"軟翅"兩類,"硬翅"風箏翅膀堅硬,吃風大,飛的高。"軟翅"風箏柔軟,飛不高,但飛的遠。在樣式上,除傳統的禽、獸、蟲、魚外,近代還發展出了人物風箏等新樣式。 中國地域遼闊,風箏作為中國的傳統文化和民間藝術,在長期發展過程中,產生出許多具有不同地域特色的種類、樣式和流派。其中以北京、天津、山東濰坊、四川、廣東所制的風箏最為著名。

我要評論

共有條評論
用戶名: 密碼:
驗證碼: 匿名發表

文明上網理性發言,請遵守新聞評論服務協議